Using a participle clause can increase your level of writing and speaking. Look at the following sentence:
Jim didn’t go out with his friends. He stayed at home and he read a book and he watched a football game.
Using participle clauses:
Jim didn’t go out with his friends. He stayed at home, reading a book and watching a football game.
A participle clause is made using –ed (past participle) or –ing (present participle). We can also use an adverb (a word that describes the verb). A participle clause can be found in different positions in a sentence.
Participle clauses with –ed:
We use –ed participles with passive verbs.
Sarah, commissioned to play the role of narrator, was the best thing that ever happened to the local theatre. (=who was commissioned to player the role of narrator)
I was working alongside two programmers employed by MicroTech. (=who were employed by MicroTech)
Participle clauses with –ing:
We use –ing participles with active verbs.
Teachers working at this school are the nicest you will ever meet. (=who are working at this school)
Life isn’t easy for people earning the minimum wage. (=who are earning the minimum wage)
Participle clauses with adverbs:
We can use an adverb before the beginning of a clause to slightly change the meaning of the verb.
Example adverbs: always, sometimes, formerly, normally, rarely, casually, firstly, hardly, etc…
Rhinos, normally thought of as docile animals, can be very fierce if they are provoked.
Anne, formerly known as the Pageant Queen, has just graduated from college.
Try the following quiz to see how much you remember:
1) People (live) in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.
2) Photos (change) to make people look thinner are dishonest.
3) A magazine (feature) a brand new method of weight-loss is coming out next month.
4) James, (rarely arrive) on time, was the first person at the restaurant.
5) Celebrities (register) at a hotel under their real name is rare.
6) John and Jill, (marry) last month, are already divorced.
7) I bought two photographs (sign) by Ronaldo.
8) The weather was fine for the couple (wear) long coats.
9) The company, (buy) by James Charleston, is now doing very well.
10) Peter, (casually kick) the ball, finally scored the winning goal.